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Metacognitive Skills in Biology Learning: Literature Review by dina

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The dDevelopment of education in the 21st century requires a lot of changes in all aspects of learning and teaching. A lecturer or teacher still dominates our education system as an instructor than a facilitator; the lecture method is still widely applied than the most innovative techniques, learning approach Students Center Learning (SCL) are still not universally applied. Similarly, the assessment system is still strongly oriented towards results rather than process. While the competence of learners is required to have higher thinking skills, critical thinking, creative thinking, metacognitive ability collaborative, communicate, and become a reliable problem solver.

The education system provides space process-oriented and flexible problem-solving. Solving the problem will grow by itself if learners learn best in class. Troubleshooting no longer waits for growth, but it needs to be taught directly by the teacher as learning objects. Through problem-solving allows students to build the concept and develop the thinking skills of their own. To solve a problem, then the student must have metacognitive skills. While the development of metacognitive students with learning shackled as we pursued through such a settlement material, various types of tests with multiple-choice, and there are more other factors that metacognitive hard to implement.

Not only understand the biology of learning and memorization of facts, concepts, and theories but more than that of learning to active learning activities using the mind to find solutions to problems. Education should not provide an answer but directed to gather information, constructing, using cognitive skills in determining a strategy to solve the problem. Metacognition is a term introduced by Flavell (1976) and defined as a person's knowledge about his cognitive processes. Metacognition refers to the awareness and monitoring of a person's mind, and job performance, or more simply, thinking about one's thinking (Flavell, 1979). It refers to high-level mental processes involved in learning as making plans to acquire, using the skills and strategies to solve problems, make forecasts of performance, and calibration levels of learning. Moore and Dwyer (2001) state that metacognition is awareness of one thinking about the thinking process itself is right about what is known and what will do. Thus metacognition involves a person's consciousness to think and act. This means that metacognition skills related to a person's cognitive ability. Teachers expected to facilitate the development of metacognitive students, among others, by giving complex tasks that require problem-solving skills. Students will be more comfortable to understand the concepts in biology learning if it has an excellent metacognitive ability. 

Metacognition is essential in learning and is a strong predictor of academic success (Dunning et al., 2003). Metacognition students with an excellent educational background compare favourably with the low school metacognition. Students with smaller metacognition benefit from the training metacognition and metacognitive to improve academic achievement. Thus, metacognition associated with the academic success of students so important empowered through learning (Sholihah et al., 2018). But today it is the ability of metacognition that has not been allowed intentionally in the learning process in schools. The indications are found in students experiencing learning difficulties. Teachers are not aware that this can affect students' learning process. 

Parents are rarely aware of and just thought their children are not right. Students who have learning difficulties usually have average intelligence, there is even above average, but because he was challenging to learn the value is ugly and labelled "stupid". According to Royanto (2006), there is a fundamental difference between metacognitive strategy cognition. Cognitive strategies to help students achieve goals through activities conducted while the metacognitive ability to help students give information about the event or progress. Cognitive strategies help make progress while a metacognitive approach to monitor progress.

According to Imel (2002), metacognition is indispensable for successful learning, because with metacognition allows students to be able to manage cognitive skills and being able to see (find) a weakness that will correct with the next cognition skills. People who are capable of performing a particular skill can be said to be capable of metacognition, which is thinking about how to show these skills. Students can be encouraged to metacognition by increasing their awareness that metacognition is needed to improve their academic achievement. The research result Imel (2002), that students who do metacognition (metacognitively aware Learners) performed better than students, in general, are not doing metacognition because metacognition enables students to plan, keep abreast of developments, and monitor the learning process.

Metacognition has some benefits as proposed by the experts include Eggen and Kauchak (1996) states that the development of metacognitive skills in students is a worthwhile goal because the skills that can help them become self-regulated learners. Self-regulated learners responsible for their learning progress and adapt their learning strategies to accomplish the task demands. Marzano (1998) state benefits for teachers and students' metacognition is emphasizing self-monitoring and student responsibility. Students can regulate themselves by planning, directing, and evaluatingon. A student who already has a metacognitive strategy will have more rapidly become independent learners. Susantini (2004) states through metacognition students to become independent learners, foster fairness, and dare to make mistakes and will improve learning outcomes significantly. Warouw (2009) states that the benefits of metacognitive skills are students will quickly organize itself to achieve the goal of learning how to plan a lesson that will be conducted, monitored implementation learning according to plan and evaluate adherence to learning about everything that still needs to be improved, and maintained. If realized in determining, the students will be able to achieve maximum results.

O'Neils and Abedi (1996) reported that there was a significant influence on all dimensions of metacognitive skills with performance appraisal. This finding is consistent with Lin (2001), which states that metacognition as the ability to understand and monitor their thoughts and assumptions as well as the implications of that person's activities. Metacognition is an activity that reminds and controlling cognition someone so by Livingston (1997) that metacognitive strategies may not be different from the cognitive approach. Livingston (1997) states that metacognition holds one of the significant roles for learning success. Therefore the metacognitive skills necessary for a student to organize an effective strategy to learn to avoid the learning disability.

Metacognitive skills refer to the ability of students to think about the process of thinking (thinking about thinking) (Livingston, 1997). The thought process leads to profound learning, how students learn, control the learning process began to plan actions, identify appropriate strategies problems, then monitor progress in education and correcting errors and analyze the concepts and strategies are determined. With metacognitive, students were able to construct their knowledge, define the problem-solving approach used, and can control the learning outcomes. Kristina, N (2015) proves that practicsing metacognitive skills can make students aware of learning, plan their education, manage their learning process, and evaluate the extent of their abilities as learners and reflect on their knowledge, including assessing their weaknesses and strengths.

Metacognitive skills are the ability to control the thinking process, from the planning phase, choosing the right strategy according to problems, monitor progress in learning and simultaneously correcting any errors that occur during understand the concepts, analyze the effectiveness of the selected approach, and do an evaluation (Risnanosanti, 2008). Livingstone (1997) suggests that metacognitive activities such as planning the completion of the task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluate progress can actively control the cognitive processes of learners. Therefore, for students who have a high metacognitive skill can be guaranteed tremendous cognitive learning outcomes. This reinforces by the findings of Amnah (2011), who reported that the administration of an effective workout with metacognitive strategies to develop metacognitive control to enhance student understanding. This understanding is an achievement that would be achieved by students.

Corebima (2006) revealed that metacognitive skills generally divided into self-assessment (assessing cognitive skills themselves) and self-management (skills to manage their cognitive development). Further Corebima (2006) explains that the skill sets involved in metacognition there are three: 1) the skills to understand the strategy or resources, and so it takes to do a task; 2) knowing how to use strategy skills or resources, and so it was, and 3) the ability to know when the use of strategies or resources and so it was.

Some studies report that metacognitive skills students at intermediate level (both awareness and metacognitive skills), at the level of can not really (not able to separate what he thinks and how he thinks) and at-risk (students seem to have no awareness of thinking as a process) (Suratno, 2009; Prayitno, 2011). This condition is expressed by Setiawan (2015) as an indication that students have difficulty in measuring and regulate the development of thinking. This is unfortunate because the metacognitive skills can encourage cognitive development of students. Livingston (1997) revealed that students who have metacognitive skills could help students independently master, understand, and remember subject matter well while helping to increase the transfer of knowledge from simple to complex structures when learning concepts in science.

Based on the issues raised above, it can say that metacognitive has a role in regulating and controlling cognitive processes in learning so that learning does efficiently and effectively. Thus empowered significant metacognitive development in learning and teaching and assessment.