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Introducation Blind Women by huma

Disertation . Deadline 2020-03-31
48 Suggestions by hicham

Introduction

“Eyesight is said to be the most important sense among all human senses in a way that approximately 80 percent of impressions are received by our sight. It helps us to distinguish light from darkness, protects us from danger, and ensures our participation in daily communication, activities, sports, work, as well as education”.1

For most of us, it can be hard to imagine how visually impaired people are living in a society where most architecture and facilities are constructed for sighted individuals.2 Similarly, individuals with vision may have difficult to consider that how to blind women professionals have managed to work on the workplace that is well-equipped with visual working materials.3 

However, in most regions of the globe, women tend to be subordinated to men. In the various experience’s women encounter when they are not only subordinate to men but also suffers from discrimination, degradation, manipulation, persecution, control, and violence.4 A perfectly normal and capable woman is discriminated against and unequally treated from the perspective of food, healthcare, education, employment, productive assets, decision-making and fundamental rights to the livelihood. The biological disputes or gender are natural, but since gender differences are the social concept.5 In such a patriarchal society, challenges and issues confronting women with disabilities are enormous and unrecognized. Women who have disabilities are the most vulnerable in society. Impairment is the lack of ability in comparison to individual or group standards. It often is quite simply a whole spectrum of capabilities.6

Therefore, there is not a criterion delineation of disability. Although, the World Health Organization (WHO) has acquired an International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps: "Impairment's refer[s] to a defective limb, organ or mechanism of the body, 'disability' as the resulting lack of function, and 'handicap' denotes the limitations on daily life which ensue from disability".7 This definition is generally accepted globally and is credibly turning down by disability activists as the definition imposed by professional (non-disabled) people. They dispute that disability is the outcome of disabling of social, environmental and attitudinal barriers.8

Disability may occur during a lifetime, or it may exist by birth.9 As shown in the 1998 Pakistan Census, the deployment of different persons with impairment in identified population with disabilities provides useful guidance for planning programs such as; 19% for physically handicapped, 14% for mentally handicapped and psychiatric patients, and 8.21% for multiple disabilities, 8.6% of visually impaired, 7.40% of hearing impaired and 43% other.10 According to the National Education and Rehabilitation Policy for Disabled Persons, the employment quota for the total number of disabled persons is 2%.11 Pakistan has concentrated on special populations since the 1980s and believes it is necessary to establish a special policy for this group in 1981 in commemoration of the United Nations International Year of Disabled Persons.12 While also taking numerous steps to the improvement of people with disabilities, and it firms up the first national disability policy in history, 2002.13 

Furthermore, the Government of Pakistan has also ratified the International Labour Organization Convention on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons, 1983. Similarly, in 2011 Pakistan also ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).14 According to estimates by the World Bank and the World Health Organization, at least 10% of the total population of Pakistan is disabled or persons with disabilities (PWDs).15 Of the 18 million people with disabilities, 5 million live in urban areas, whereas the other 13 million people live in rural areas.16 However, it is interesting that only 136,928 PWDs have been registered with the National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) and have obtained Computerised National Identity Cards (CNIC).17 There is no probable statistical data in Pakistan., Hhowever many acquiesce the percentage of disabled people who are employed is considerably lower. Disabled are facing many obstacles to obtain employment. Initially, there is a destructive stance on employing disabled people as employers do not see their talents and value in the workplace.18

In Pakistan, humiliation is aggravated by the fact that the only representation of a disabled person is the reflection of a poor man begging on the street.19 And whether this mortification is exceeded, there will not be barriers to work for people with visual, hearing or physical impairments: getting to work (quality of roads and transportation networks), moving around the workplace (ramp, accessible restrooms and so on) and work (with technology).20 Moreover, communication is challenging for people suffering from speech and hearing impairments because sign language is not generally used. For the mentally disabled, limited rehabilitation and educational services consistent with their needs have reduced their employment opportunities.21 Therefore, the other problem is that the economy like Pakistan is generally subsistence to agriculture, and many job opportunities are still in the primary industries. For example, productive workers in the rural population are difficult for anyone with a disability.22 The country also has a huge number of workers, which indicates that employers hardly choose candidates that need to spend resources making them suitable for the work.23

Although there is a huge difference in the number of persons with disabilities between the World Report and the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, in both instances, there are a large number of disabled persons dwell in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The most significant fact of being investigated is the close link between poverty and disability, one of which leads to each other and inversely.24 Berhanu stated that there is a close relationship between disability and destitution, as many systemic factors contribute to the ferocious circle. This may mean the complementary nature of the particular needs as well as low socioeconomic conditions. It may indicate that disabled people are more likely to fall into poverty. The poor have a greater chance of disability.25 Most people living with disabilities are susceptible to demographic problems. The demographic confronts is considered a personal challenge. This may comprise age, gender, family status, type of disability, impairment level, education, coping strategies, social circumstances, profession, and so forth.26

Another study elaborates that people with disabilities, and particularly blinds are unemployed workers, low-income or not at all in the employment market have a higher unemployment level than the able person. The causes of unemployment for persons with disabilities are obstacles to employment for the disabled person, such as employer discrimination, architectural barriers in the place of work, ubiquitous destructive attitudes pertain to skills and antithetical client reactions.27

Certain department heads have been reluctant to accept visually impaired or disabled women in the workplace. They are deemed to be an incumbentr because they need the help of the office to work efficiently. As an example, visually impaired or blind people need helpers to help them in the read, teachers need to support teachers to help them mark student notebooks.28 Employment is directly related to education. We will have access to visually impaired or people with disabilities, only as many invested monies over them. Like for instance, unless they are being treated specially at school, we will not be able to fulfill their potential on workplace.29

In the contrast toof this, the present research focuses on the blind and visually impaired women especially professionally working women, in Karachi, Pakistan. These women face challenges in each spare of their lives ;that’s why it is necessary to do some research work on their social and financial conditions. So, this research, therefore, examined the socio-economic difficulties of blind professional working women encountered in workplace facilities and support of blind working women experienced to be appropriate. The blind women can make their contributions to all aspects of national development. However, they do not have that chance due to both impairment they have had and lack of opportunities and accessibility regarding social and economic provisions, as well as disability mortification and marginalization that intensified the situation to deteriorate.30 The lack of resources of rehabilitation and assistance to re-establish their socio-economic status to a normal state is another disparity not yet encountered. Undefined strategy guideline and their poor execution on the ground level remains unresolved disputes of blind and impaired women in Pakistan.

Research Problem

Every single people discuss the blind and visually impairment, certain stereotypes appear in their minds, including, a guide dog, being unable to read, an association with darkness, a white cane, not being able to recognize people’s faces and many more, all of which point to a sense of helplessness. Most of them have difficulty accepting the fact that they have become blind and visually impaired, and they still expect the community will consider them as ‘normal’ people. Though, people in this condition usually don't realize that this attitude may lead them to a greater detriment in managing daily life after they become blind and visually impaired. Here, psychotherapy should be emphasized to eradicate this behavior and help reduce the destructive effects of visual deterioration on emotive health. 

The research has been done to view the social and economic problems faced by blind and visually impaired women. The study seeks to know the social attitudes and behavior of people towards blind women. This study is helpful to carry on further analyses of the challenges of professional women with blindness and visual impairment in terms of mobility. It also shows how blind women manage their income within the household. It also discovers why blind women are not employed according to their abilities. It makes the people aware of this issue of our Pakistani society. This research will determine the difficulties and problems faced by blind and visually impaired women in the workplace. This study may be quietly different and opposite from the other researchers. The study also fortified and motivateds the blind women to do work and try to manage and earn their salary.

 

Objectives

  1. To find out the socio-economic conditions of blind and visually impaired professional women.
  2. To find out the social attitudes and perceptions towards blind and visually impaired professional women.
  3. To find out the effects of discrimination towards professional women with blindness and visually impairment.
  4. To find out the level of harassment faced by blind and visually impaired professional women at  the workplace.
  5. To find out why blind and visual impaired women are not employed according to their abilities.
  6. To find out the challenges of professional women with blindness and visual impairment in terms of mobility in Pakistan.
  7. To find out the problems faced in their domestic life.
  8. To find out how the status of professional women can be improved according to their own views.
  9. To find out how they manage their income within household and upon themselves.
  10. To examine and analyse the role of blind and visually impaired professional women in their family with special reference to decision-making power.

 

The Scope of the Research

This thesis emphases the lives of the visually impaired and blind women in Karachi, who are restricted in employment and income choices and therefore contribute to low-paying jobs. Somewhat than considering only their everyday lives and daily practices as blind and visually impaired, they have also drawn further attention to the impact of the social, cultural, economic and political factors of contemporary Pakistani society. In addition to the sociocultural description of disability in the Pakistani context, social constructivists and socio-economic methodologies to disability are used as a theoretical framework to explain the overall life experience of working women who are blind. It deals with the life experiences of blind working women and the social, cultural, economic, and political issues related to disability in contemporaneous Pakistani society, rather than identifying a series of incidents or behaviors about them in isolation.

It also deals with society's interpretation of infirmity, rather than considering disability as an incompetent, unsuccessful, or problem specific to a particular individual. Finally, it involves the role of Government, policy intercessions and the main agents in improving the life of visually impaired and blind working women, specifically those whose main source of income is derived from low earnings work, rather than assessing the policy and legal frameworks as such. Besides, these commendations can be used as part of a new reintegration strategy in tackling the psychosomatic health and well-being issues of women with disabilities, particularly those with a visual impairment and blind, by reassuring them to make more frequent use of technologies.

 

Justification of the Study

This study has been done to view the social and economic problems faced by blind and visually impaired professional women living in Karachi. This study will highlight the problems that are faced by professional women with blindness and visual impairment and their solutions related to their work. These women also face many difficulties and issues in domestic life due to their disability. The discernment and discrimination they face in promotion, the unenthusiastic attitude of a boss or employer towards their work performance, having less believed in the skills and capabilities of disabled women. All these issues and differences need to tackle out to give these women a suitable place they deserve in society. This study will also waken the Government to the fact that state-level support and benefaction is required to resolve issues. In countries like Pakistan women and mostly disabled women are susceptible sections who generally are given no importance in the overall development. Their involvement in various sectors can be seen as remarkable but it finds no place when the matter of identification comes into the discussion at any level-. Women with blindness and visual impairment seeking employment discrimination of gender and disability. The determination of this study is to observe employment opportunities and obstacles experienced by women with blindness and visual impairment living in Karachi. This issue needs the attention of Governmental, Non-governmental and educational institutions, to play their role in eliminating such offenses and facilitate blind and visually impaired women from a healthy and vigorous environment.

 

The Basic Research Paradigm

A paradigm is a context comprising of basic suppositions, ways of thinking, and methods generally recognized by members of the scientific community.31 This is a set of morals, opinions, or concepts. Paradigms are a way of observing at things. The word paradigm often appears in academia, science, and business.32 The present research is based on the social and economic problems faced by blind and visually impaired professional women living in Karachi.

The socio-economic challenges of persons, especially women with disabilities were explained by Muleta Hussein Sedeto and Mohd Jameel Dar.33 They also demonstrate that women with disabilities face barriers to accessing health services, lower educational achievements, less social and economic participation, and lower-income rates, compared to normal people. Women without any disability taken for granted all these services include health services, education, employment, transportation and information, and rehabilitation. Nevertheless, blind and visually impaired professional women in our society, especially in Karachi, suffered all these problems and challenges. They also faced social and economic difficulties in getting employment and their wages are low according to their capabilities.34

The purpose of the study is to know about the problems faced by blind professional women in their domestic life and to observe the role of blind and visually impaired professional women in their family with special reference to decision-making power. In a report of USAID (by Sarah Phillips), it was discussed that rights to sex, marriage and motherhood and chances to participate in these life activities seem to be the most definite gender issues facing women with disabilities (WWD). Desecrations of WWD's right to health care, especially the absence of gynaecological care, are closely related to these problems. These issues comprise areas of access, time and space, and power and decision-making.35 While unemployment is high in all regions, inadequate statistics and available circumstantial evidence indicate that women with disabilities are less likely to be employed than men with disabilities. If the WWD is a mother, their employment probabilities may be particularly restricted. The lack of employment opportunities with WWD is a gender issue, leading to a decrease in women's economic dependence and personal self-sufficiency. The issue involves areas of access, practice, and contribution.36 The research also focused on the societal attitude towards blind and visually impaired professional women. 

 

Hypotheses

  1. People feel sympathy for towards blind and visually impaired professional women but do not want to understand their capabilities.
  2. There are limited employment opportunities for blind and visually impaired women.
  3. Employers regard blind and visually impaired women as unproductive workers who are unable to adjust to the workplace.
  4. Women with blindness and visual impairment seeking employment face double discrimination of gender and disability.
  5. The legal framework in Pakistan is weak as far as protecting the rights of the person with disabilities is n concerned.

Variables

Variables are features that increase or reduce over time, or take altered values ​​in different conditions.37 In science, a variable is any element, aspect, or condition that can be controlled or reformed.38 Each study has its own research variables to find the cause and outcome. Variables is of two types depend and independent variables. Subsequently, are the variables of research:

Independent Variables

  • Blind and visually impaired women
  • Women with blindness and visual impairment
  • Rights of person with disabilities

Dependent Variables

  • Sympathy and capabilities
  • Limited employment opportunities
  • Unproductive workers
  • Face double discrimination of gender and disability
  • Legal framework in Pakistan

 

The Key Concepts

Working woman

Women who generally earn salaries, remunerations or other income outside the home through usual work. Working women are women involved in manual or industrialized labor.39

 

Disability

Disability is a general term that covers impairment, activity constraints and participation restraints. Impairment is a problem of corporal function or structure; activity constraint is the difficulty encountered by individuals in performing chores or actions and participation limitation is a difficulty faced by persons in contributing in living conditions.40

Blindness

Blindness can be impermanent or everlasting. It was the loss of useful sight. Damage to the eyes, optic nerve, or any part of the brain area can cause blindness.41 There are several reasons for of blindness (truly countless). Contemporary correct terms for blindness comprise of the visually challenged and the visually handicapped.42

Unproductive worker

From a capitalist perspective, unproductive workers are workers who expend more than reproducinge. People who get paid from salary, wages and profits, their services are directly exchanged for income.43 Utmost domestic workers who provide personal services to employers are non-productive workers or unproductive workers.44

Visually Impairment

As the term implies, visual impairment includes vision problems that can interfere with a student's academic recital.45 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) authoritatively defines the category as “visual impairment that can undesirably affect a child's educational performance even when corrected. The term embraces of partial vision and blindness”.46

Problem

The problem is unacceptable and challenging situations. A problem is defined as a difficulty that must be resolved, or an unlikable or undesired circumstance that needs to be modified.47

Difficulty

The dDifficulty is defined as a condition or circumstance that averts you or causes you to face a challenge, or the state or condition of being confronted or be in trouble.48

 

Harassment

Harassment is a type of discernment. It includes any harmful physical or verbal behavior that affronts or insults you.49 Harassment is usually a behavior that continues over time. A serious one-time incident can also be considered harassment.50

Discrimination:

The treatment of an individual or a specific group of people is different than the way people are usually handled. Discrimination refers that one or a group of people is treated more unfairly or inferior to others or a group of people.51