Free Online Proofreading

synopsis by sajid

13 Suggestions by hicham

Nutraceuticals are widely appreciated for their beneficial effects in the human body providing support to the structure and functioning, but also prevent the body from acquiring different disorders because of their natural origin, safe, therapeutic, and non-toxic nature. Nutraceuticals contain active phytochemicals that confer health benefits providing better treatment for various diseases, improving health, and postponing the aging process. Strengthening the immune system by reducing the oxidative stress is one of the major roles of nutraceuticals in the human body. Now a days elucidating these nutraceutical compounds from the foods or even using the whole food as a nutraceutical for treating diseases is highly accepted worldwide.1

Stinging nettle or common nettle, Urtica dioica, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant, native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and North America, and is the best-known member of the nettle genus Urtica. The plant has many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on its leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation when contacted by humans and other animals. The plant has a long history of use as a medicine and as a food source needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation when contacted by humans and other animals. The plant has a long history of use as a medicine and as a food source. Stinging nettle is a dioecious herbaceous perennial, 1 to 2 m (3 to 7 ft) tall in the summer and dying down to the ground in winter. It has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, which are bright yellow as are the roots. The soft green leaves are 3 to 15 cm (1 to 6 in) long and are borne oppositely on an erect wiry green stem. The leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a cordate base and an acuminate tip with a terminal leaf tooth longer than adjacent laterals. It bears small greenish or brownish numerous flowers in dense axillary inflorescences. The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs and also bear many stinging hairs (trichomes), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that will inject several chemicals: acetylcholine, histamine, 5-HT (serotonin), moroidin , leukotrienes and possibly formic acid. This mixture of chemical compounds causes a painful sting or paresthesia from which the species derives its common name, as well as the colloquial names, burn nettle, burn weed, burn hazel. Nettle leaf is a herb that has a long tradition of use as an adjuvant remedy in the treatment of arthritis in Germany. Nettle leaf extract contains active compounds that reduce TNF-α and other inflammatory cytokines. It has been demonstrated that nettle leaf lowers TNF-α levels by potently inhibiting the genetic transcription factor that activates TN-α and 1L-1B in the synovial tissue that lines the joint.2

Hyperlipidemia is characterized by an elevation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), free fatty acids, as well as reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels. Among these the most common are hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia which are the reason to cause ischemic heart disease3. It is estimated that raised cholesterol causes 2.6 million deaths worldwide. In 2008 the global prevalence of raised total cholesterol among adults (≥ 5.0 mmol/l) was 39% (37% for males and 40% for females). The World Health Organization has reported that Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of death, killing 111.4 thousand people in 2012 in Pakistan4.

Cholesterol is no doubt an important component required for a number of functions in human body but on the other hand excess amount of cholesterol above a limit is disastrous to the body. A Higher level of oxidation of LDL is required if the cholesterol is in excess which as a result increases the oxidative stress. Hypercholesterolemia accounts for the level of total cholesterol that exceeds 200mg/dL. Treating the condition of high levels of cholesterol requires a lot of care and medications but having an alternative that is natural, safe and non-toxic is a wonder. So are the black cumin seeds which possess the nutraceutical property and are being used in the treatment of different disorders1.

Urtica Dioica is a common herb in most regions of the world. It is used to treat rheumatic pain, urinary tract infection and bladder stone. It has several pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-oxidative activities hepato-protective and cardio protectives effects. The current study will examine the hypocholesterolemic effect of Urtica Dioica among the three different concentrations.